Thursday, February 12, 2009

Kemelut perundangan MB(lama&baru)

KEMELUT PELANTIKAN MB PERAK
Oleh Datuk Seri Dr Rais Yatim

PERKEMBANGAN di Perak yang antara lain cuba mengheret Sultan Perak ke Mahkamah susulan pelantikan Menteri Besar (MB) baru, mengandungi ramuan yang boleh membawa kepada keadaan kelam-kabut.Jika tindakan tegas tidak diambil ia juga mungkin menimbulkan huru-hara politik, sesuatu yang jauh daripada diperlukan pada saat-saat negara menghadapi kesan kemelesetan ekonomi dunia.Kemelut di Perak memerlukan pemahaman dan penerimaan semua pihak yang terbabit. Apa yang diteraskan oleh perundangan negeri itu kini telah dipolitikkan oleh pelbagai pihak secara yang tidak pernah dilakukan sebelum ini.

Sultan Perak telah menggunakan kuasa dirajanya melantik Menteri Besar baru, Datuk Dr. Zambry Abdul Kadir pada 6 Februari 2009.Menteri Besar (MB) terdahulu, Datuk Seri Ir. Mohammad Nizar Jamaluddin mendakwa seperti yang diberitakan media bahawa beliau telah tidak ditamatkan perkhidmatannya selaras dengan undang-undang, justeru pihaknya mengambil tindakan untuk 'meneruskan' perkhidmatannya dan Exconya sementara menunggu keputusan mahkamah.Malangnya pada masa yang sama pelbagai blog termasuk media cetak Pas, Harakah, bertindak menyebarkan hasutan membenci satu-satunya raja Melayu yang berwibawa dan bijaksana.

Sekarang semacam ada dua Menteri Besar dan dua Exco bagi negeri Perak, sesuatu yang tidak pernah berlaku sebelumnya di dunia.Dalam situasi begini keadaan politik dan pentadbiran di Perak tampak berkecamuk lantaran begitu keterlaluan sesetengah pihak bertindak. Dalam hal ini jelas bahawa penyokong-penyokong PKR, DAP dan Pas merasakan lunas perundangan dan keadilan telah dikompromi sementara pihak Barisan Nasional pula puas hati bahawa semua tuntutan undang-undang negeri telah pun disempurnakan.

Perihal pada masa ini kuasa raja dan tuntutan politik telah bertembung tidak dapat dinafikan. Perkembangan ini membawa kita ke tahun-tahun 1993 dan 1994 apabila Perlembagaan negara dipinda melalui suara majoriti di Parlimen.Tindakan legislatif itu telah mengurangkan beberapa hak diraja sehingga semenjak tahun 1994 tindakan undang-undang boleh diambil terhadap mereka jika melakukan jenayah atau terlibat dengan mungkir perjanjian formal.

Perkembangan di Perak jelas melibatkan kekasaran pembangkang di luar lunas adab dan tamadun sesebuah negeri Melayu yang berpemerintahan diraja. Malah ada pihak-pihak yang rela berbaring di jalan raya dan menghalang lalu lintas awam.Mempelawa membenci raja secara terbuka adalah secara terang dan nyata mencabul Rukun Negara dan merupakan jenayah hasutan yang wajar didakwa.

Ada tiga isu besar yang harus diselesaikan dalam kes di Perak ini.

Pertama adakah pemberhentian bekas MB Perak sah di sisi undang-undang?

Kedua, adakah pelantikan Zambry terbit daripada kuasa diraja yang sah?

Ketiga, perlukah diadakan sidang khas Dewan Undang Negeri (DUN) Perak bagi menentukan sokongan atau sebaliknya terhadap Barisan Nasional (BN) selaku parti yang dianggap sah telah mengatasi gabungan pembangkang PKR, DAP dan Pas?

Untuk menjawab persoalan-persoalan itu, punca kuasa ialah Perlembagaan Negeri Perak sendiri, khususnya Artikel 16 dan pecahannya. Perundangan inilah yang menentukan betul atau sebaliknya sesuatu tindakan yang telah, sedang dan bakal diambil berkaitan kemelut yang sedang berlaku di Perak.

Cuma yang menjadi muslihat ialah interpretasi pemakaiannya yang betul dan tepat dari segi perundangan. Sultan berpendapat tindakannya di bawah Artikel 16 betul sedangkan pembangkang mengatakan sebaliknya, justeru mahu mengheret sultan ke mahkamah.Seperti juga kuasa Raja Berperlembagaan di lain-lain negeri yang diperintah raja atau sultan, Sultan Perak mempunyai beberapa kuasa khusus yang tidak boleh dicabar atau dipersoalkan.Pertama baginda boleh bersetuju atau tidak bersetuju membubarkan Dewan Undang Negeri susulan mana-mana permintaan atau nasihat.Kedua, kuasa melantik seseorang daripada kalangan Ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri (ADUN) yang pada hematnya mempunyai sokongan majoriti daripada kalangan ADUN berkenaan.Ketiga, hak mengemukakan permintaan untuk mengadakan mesyuarat Majlis Raja-Raja yang semata-mata mengenai kemudahan, kedudukan, penghormatan dan kebesaran diraja serta hak dan kuasa penentu sebagai ketua agama Islam dan payung adat istiadat Melayu di negeri Perak.Baginda berhak menentukan tidak menerima nasihat untuk membubarkan DUN tanpa memberi apa-apa sebab.

Kuasa dan peranan diraja ini tidak boleh dicabar di mahkamah sama ada menerusi konsep fraudem legis (muslihat negatif legislatif atau dewan perundangan) atau peruntukan statutori lain.Kedua, Sultan Perak di bawah Perkara 16(2)(a) berhak melantik (sebelum melantik ahli-ahli Majlis Mesyuarat Kerajaan) seorang Menteri Besar yang pada hemat baginda berkemungkinan beroleh sokongan majoriti di Dewan Undangan Negeri berkenaan. Dalam Perlembagaan Negeri-negeri dan juga Persekutuan, peruntukan ini sedia ada, cuma cara dan kaedah bagaimana sultan atau raja menyempurnakan fungsi ini tidak dinyatakan huraiannya di dalam Perlembagaan.

Di bawah Perlembagaan Negeri Perak tiada peruntukan yang menghalang sultan daripada menamatkan perkhidmatan seseorang MB jika baginda mendapati bahawa MB itu sudah tidak lagi beroleh sokongan majoriti anggota DUN. Artikel 16(6) jelas memperuntukkan perihal ini.

Harus diperhatikan lantaran di bawah provisi Artikel 16(4), raja mempunyai budi bicara yang luas untuk menentukan siapa harus dilantik sebagai Menteri Besar. Bahasa perlembagaannya menentukan bahawa ADUN yang dilantik sultan sebagai MB hendaklah terdiri daripada seorang yang pada hemat baginda berkemungkinan beroleh sokongan majoriti anggota Dewan berkenaan atau dalam bahasa Inggerisnya "who in his judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of the Assembly".Atas keadaan inilah sebilangan orang berpendapat bagi menentukan anggota mana yang harus mendapat sokongan majoriti di DUN berkenaan perlu tertakluk kepada pungutan suara DUN sendiri justeru harus diadakan persidangan khas.

Memang banyak pihak menyokong pandangan ini tetapi harus disedari bahawa mengadakan undian atau pungutan suara di lantai DUN berkenaan hanya salah satu kaedah yang lazim tetapi ia bukan bersifat wajib jika sultan telah puas hati bahawa sesungguhnya seseorang MB itu sudah kehilangan sokongan majoritinya.Dengan peruntukan Artikel 16(2) bersekali dengan klausa (4) Perlembagaan Negeri Perak jelaslah bahawa apabila Sultan telah melantik Zambry melalui proses pengetepian peruntukan-peruntukan selainnya di bawah Perlembagaan negeri itu - sesuatu yang dibenarkan oleh undang-undang tubuh negeri itu.

Ini bermakna baginda telah menjalankan tugas dan fungsi perundangan.Ada pakar-pakar perlembagaan yang berpandangan bahawa memadai jika pihak diraja membuat keputusan subjektifnya tanpa mengadakan pengundian di sesuatu persidangan DUN bagi menentukan sokongan terhadap seseorang MB.

Dalam konteks Perak, sultan telah membuat kesimpulannya dengan mendengar huraian sendiri mengenai pendirian ketiga-tiga ADUN yang berkenaan (Jamaluddin Mohd. Radzi - PKR Behrang; Mohd. Osman Mohd. Jailu - PKR Changkat Jering dan Hee Yit Foong - DAP Jelapang).Ketiga-tiga mereka memilih untuk menjadi wakil rakyat Bebas tetapi bersedia menyokong BN.Baginda juga maklum tentang kembalinya semula Datuk Nasaruddin (DUN Bota) ke pangkuan UMNO/BN.

Dalam konteks ini baginda sedia arif bahawa BN telah pun beroleh sokongan majoriti mudah (simple majority) dengan pengakuan wakil-wakil rakyat itu di hadapan baginda.Mengadakan undian di DUN bukan merupakan satu-satunya cara untuk menentukan sokongan atau sebaliknya terhadap seseorang MB. Sultan Perak khususnya boleh membuat kaedahnya sendiri sejajar dengan Artikel 16(4) Undang-Undang Tubuh Negeri Perak.

Kes-kes terdahulu yang boleh dijadikan perbandingan, termasuklah kes Stephen Kalong Ningkan (1966) dan kes pertikaian Ketua Menteri di Sabah khususnya pada tahun 1994 dan perihal seorang pembesar di Nigeria melalui kes Adigbenro Akintola.Memang ramai yang menganggap bahawa kaedah melucutkan jawatan seseorang ketua kerajaan ialah melalui konvensyen undian di lantai dewan legislatif.

Tetapi harus ditegaskan kes-kes tersebut adalah nas-nas perundangan case law yang tidak terbit daripada peruntukan perlembagaan yang jelas atau khusus seperti di Perak.Ia tidak sama dengan kuasa yang ada pada Sultan Perak di bawah Perkara 16(4) Perlembagaan negeri itu yang bermaksud:Dalam perkara melantik seseorang Menteri Besar, Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan bolehlah mengikut budi bicara baginda mengecualikan atau tidak memakai mana-mana peruntukan Perlembagaan ini (Perlembagaan Negeri Perak) berkaitan mana-mana had kuasa (restrictions) berhubung dengan pelantikan Menteri Besar, jika pada pendapat baginda tindakan sedemikian perlu untuk menyempurnakan kehendak peruntukan-peruntukan Perkara (16) ini.

Dengan perisai peruntukan ini jelaslah bahawa baginda sultan tidak terikat untuk mengikuti mana-mana kelaziman atau konvensyen seperti untuk mengadakan undian sokongan (vote of confidence) di Dewan Undangan Negeri bagi menentukan seseorang anggota DUN itu layak dilantik sebagai MB.Peruntukan ini jugalah yang tampaknya digunakan baginda untuk menguatkuasakan tamatnya perkhidmatan Nizar sebagai MB Perak.

Cuma jika pengundian itu diadakan juga di DUN Perak dan berakhir dengan sokongan kepada Zambry, maka hasil dan kesannya memang boleh diibaratkan sebagai "sudah terang lagi bersuluh". Langkah itu akan menambah kuatkan lagi tindakan diraja itu.Bagaimanapun tanpa undian itu tindakan beliau melantik Zambry tetap utuh dan boleh dipertahankan di mahkamah.Dalam suasana begini elemen kewarasan dan adab amat penting.

Tetapi seperti biasa, manusia kurang tertarik kepada mengutamakan ketenangan berfikir.Sebilangan memilih terus untuk mengeruhkan keadaan.Dalam pada itu susulan pindaan Perlembagaan Persekutuan 1994 harus tidak dilupai. Seseorang raja hanya boleh diseret ke mahkamah jika beroleh endorsmen Peguam Negara yang tentunya akan membuat penilaian dan pertimbangan yang amat teliti sama ada beliau puas hati untuk mengeluarkan endorsmen tersebut.

Amat wajar juga bagi Peguam Negara meneliti segala maki hamun dan hasutan yang dikeluarkan oleh pelbagai pihak setakat ini terhadap baginda Sultan Perak, khususnya penulis-penulis blog serta media cetak yang tampaknya beranggapan semacam negara ini sudah tidak ada undang-undang lagi.

Copy@DariKacamata Melayu by add

1 comment:

Perawi said...

WHY I'M BOYCOTTING ANYTHING 'MADE IN ISRAEL'

Exchange trips should be off: no holidays in sunny Eilat, even Christian pilgrims to the holy places might delay their trips

Yasmin Alibhai-Brown
Monday, 15 April 2002

First let me say the following as clearly and loudly as I can: I have fought against anti-Semitism all my life, against friends, colleagues, lovers, anyone who expressed anti-Jewish sentiments. I remember one night in 1974 when I stood for four hours under a lamp-post in north Oxford recovering from a screaming row with my ex-husband after he accused me of being excessively emotional about the Holocaust. My nine-year-old daughter was taken to see The Merchant of Venice in the week when all her friends were flooding to Harry Potter because we feel she needs to understand anti-Semitism as it arises around the world once again. I refused to support the UN conference against racism in Durban because I feared it would give licence to people to abuse Jews and it did. And as I observe the unsheathed hatred of Jews among many Muslims here and around the world, I feel shame and rage.

First let me say the following as clearly and loudly as I can: I have fought against anti-Semitism all my life, against friends, colleagues, lovers, anyone who expressed anti-Jewish sentiments. I remember one night in 1974 when I stood for four hours under a lamp-post in north Oxford recovering from a screaming row with my ex-husband after he accused me of being excessively emotional about the Holocaust. My nine-year-old daughter was taken to see The Merchant of Venice in the week when all her friends were flooding to Harry Potter because we feel she needs to understand anti-Semitism as it arises around the world once again. I refused to support the UN conference against racism in Durban because I feared it would give licence to people to abuse Jews and it did. And as I observe the unsheathed hatred of Jews among many Muslims here and around the world, I feel shame and rage.

I condemn the acts of suicide bombers whose own hopelessness makes them target Israelis in caf├ęs, at weddings, in street markets, bursting open the bodies of the young and the old and themselves; and by each act blowing away peace and progress. Israel – as it was originally created – has an absolute right to exist and to flourish, without fear.

But Israel has absolutely no right to do what it wants, to use such overpowering weaponry against mostly unarmed people (we will never ever know how many are being killed in the current deluge) and justify that by referring to the horrendous history which led to the creation of the Jewish homeland. In fact I would suggest that Ariel Sharon should be tried for crimes against humanity in Sabra and Shatila, and Jenin and other occupied areas and be damned too for so debasing the profoundly important legacy of the Holocaust, which was meant to stop forever nations turning themselves into ethnic killing machines.

Remind yourself of this. Read the gripping new biography of Primo Levi by Carole Angier to understand the inimitable humanity of great Jewish thinkers, people who had every reason to surrender to the abomination of all-out vengeance but never did. Levi's painstaking testimonies about what happened in Auschwitz illuminate connections and avoid the traps of special pleading. He surely would not have been able to witness without protest the depravity of the current Israeli leadership.

Sharon can only carry on with his invasion of the West Bank because Colin Powell and his master in the White House crumble before his brutish ways and the US pro-Israeli lobby. He knows too he has the blind support of Americans and Britons whose anti-Arab racism has this year reached new lows. One columnist writing in a US journal captures the view held by many: "Israeli tanks should mow down Arab youths as they throw stones. Kill them. Keep going until the Arabs decide whether they hate Jews more than they love their children. I don't think the Israelis would have to dispose of too many Arab children before the white flag would go up."

So do we just blink back our tears and wait for these deaths? No. That would be like killing all imagination and optimism. I have just come back from Cape Town where I met inspirational people who fought those long, long years against apartheid. They gave me courage that all is not lost. We don't have to depend on craven British ministers who still insist on blaming Arafat (no saint he) more than they can bring themselves to accuse Sharon.

These South African liberationists have already persuaded many people not to buy anything from Israel. No, they admit, apartheid was not exactly the same as what is happening in Palestine. Yet, they recognise the familiarities. The racism against Arabs which fuels hard-line leaders; the systematic violence and humiliation to force a population to succumb to what is an unjust deal; the bulldozers, oh the bulldozers which evoke such trembling memories in so many South Africans who remember how they too had their homes and lives turned to dust not that long ago.

They have not forgotten either that Israel for many years supported apartheid and that some Tories thought white South African rulers were just fine people. Nelson Mandela was also declared a terrorist for not denouncing the use of violence against the iniquitous system built on a permanent state of heightened paranoia, just like Israel today.

I think we – all those who want Israel to leave the occupied territories – should follow the example of the South African activists. I have already started looking at labels and putting back anything made in Israel. Many of my friends are doing the same. We are e-mailing organisations – not those based on religion because Palestinians are not only Muslims – but all those who want to see a world committed to universal human rights. Money will count more than words. The US will not be able to prop up the economy of Israel forever and these hard wars are expensive.

We should call on unions, especially Equity, to advise artists and others to cut relations with the state of Israel. Exchange trips should be off; no holidays in sunny Eilat (perhaps this is happening already because of fear), even Christian pilgrims to the holy places need to think if this is when God may want them to delay the trip. Please note these actions are not directed at Jewish people but at the Israeli government. We will not, for example, stop buying from shops in Britain owned by Jewish people.

I was heartened to find out that others are doing their bit. Professor Stephen Rose and Professor Hilary Rose have started a boycott of institutional, cultural, academic and research links with Israel. They have collected 300 names across Europe. Jewish academics have signed up too. The signatories must know that this means cutting off much that is of value. There are hundreds of joint research projects between Arab and Israeli academic institutions – scarce spaces where decent dialogue and co-operation has been able to carry on. But I think they are right to sign up because we are in the middle of an unprecedented inferno which politicians are doing nothing to quell.

We know some Israeli soldiers are rejecting Sharon's strategy and that small peace groups keep going, enduring rejection, accusations of treachery and worse every time another suicide bomber goes off. Several Jewish women who work for human rights are trying to find ways to make their objections heard. They know they must tread carefully so as not to give succour to Jew-haters but unless they take an ethical position, they will be violating all that they stand for. As one Jewish South African friend, an artist, who lives in London put it: "I owe it to my father who fought against apartheid and my grandfather who died in Germany, not to let my people turn into fascists. Don't name me but I say that many of us are beginning to think that Israel is a burden on our backs instead of the imagined haven we grew up thinking it was, the place of safety and honour in an evil world. I will not stand by and let them do this in my name."

She is not alone. These brave Jewish dissidents and others who refuse to retreat and cower will stop the tanks; or, if not, at least they will ensure the nameless hundreds who are being killed did not die undefended as the world looked on helplessly. So remember to read the label; put it back if it is made in Israel. You will know you did a little something.

y.alibhai-brown@independent.co.uk